Caffein is the consumed drug more in the western society. The drink consumption that often contains caffein in many adults and children reaches levels that can induce pharmacological effects (that is not in a conventional dose).
Caffein is a compound alkaloid of the group of xanthins present in grains of coffee and cacao, the tea leaves, the berries of guaraná and the nut of tail, that is added to refreshments and to diverse medicines.
It acts as natural pesticide, protecting the plants of the insects that feed themselves on them. The average caffein content by 150 ml (1 cup) of the toasted coffee ground is of around 85 mgs; of the instantaneous coffee, it is of 60 mgs; of the coffee decaffeinated, 3 mgs; of the tea in leaves or stock market, of 30 mgs; of the instantaneous tea, of 20 mgs, and the cacao or hot chocolate, it is of 4 mgs a glass (200 ml) of refreshment with caffein has between 20 60 caffein mgs.
Caffein, teofilina and teobromina are united to the A1 receivers and A2a of adenosine, acting as competitive antagonists (10-40 concentrations micromol/L). It inhibits fosfodiesterasa that gives rise to an increase of the concentrations of AMPc and GMPc, an activation of channels of K+ and an inhibition of the calcium channels of N type. In brain, the adenosine receivers inhibit the liberation of numerous neurotransmitters (GABA, acetylcholine, dopamine, glutamato, noradrenaline and serotonin), caffein will produce the opposite effect stimulating alerts, concentration, better spirit and storage capacity.
An adult consumes an average of 200 daily mgs (100-400 mg) of caffein, mainly through coffee and tea, although they also contribute the refreshments, as drinks energetics . However, the dose depends to a great extent on the habits in different cultures.
The caffein presence must appear clearly in the labels of the drinks that contain more than 150 mg/l.
The ninety-nine percent of ingested caffein is absorbed and distributed to all the weaves and organs of the human body.
The effects of caffein depend to a great extent on the ingested amount and its cumulative effect of chronic way, as well as the development of tolerance to the effects.
The acute effect of caffein is presumed that it produces in the patients who do not accustom it or in those who have left his consumption by a long period, increase of the arterial pressure, presence of cardiac arrhythmias, alterations of the miocárdica function, increase of the plasmatic catecholamine levels (adrenalin and noradrenaline, the activity of renina plasmatic (it has to do with the elevation of the arterial pressure), increase of the cholesterol, increase of the urine production, gastric acid secretion, and alterations in the landlords of the mood and the rate of the dream.
The tolerance to the chronic caffein ingestion is developed in the majority of the individuals with the cease of its effects on the renal system, the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal system and, to a certain extent, the central nervous system (that is it stops affecting to the organism).
Moderate caffein consumers do not have to worry about the effect in their health if their other habits of lifestyle are also moderate.
Caffein is the psychoactive substance more widely used and, sometimes an abuse drug has been considered.
They are related to a well-being sensation.
Caffein in doses that reflect the daily human consumption, does not induce a dopamine liberation in the surface of the nucleus accumbens, but it leads to a dopamine liberation in the crust pre-frontal.
Caffein increases to the use of sugar in the surface of the nucleus accumbens when above in high concentrations to the brain; this, as well, stimulates of inespecífica form to the majority of the structures. In order to stimulate nucleus caudado needs little amount caffein (extra-pyramidal system motor and the neuronal structures that regulates the cycle of dream-watch), the 2 functions that is more sensible to caffein.
Therefore, although caffein fulfills some of the criteria for the drug dependency, shares with amphetamines and the cocaine a certain specificity of action on the cerebral dopaminérgico system, does not act on the structures related to the reward, the motivation and the addiction therefore does not create dependency.
Tolerance to some subjective effects of caffein can be generated, but the majority of the times, does not take place one complete tolerance in the effects of SNC (Sistema Nervioso Central).
In the human beings, the functions of reinforcement in the SNC (to continue influencing) of caffein, are associate to low or moderate doses, which does not happen to high doses that if they reinforce the addiction.
The dietetic sources for the consumption include coffee, tea, sodas and the chocolate, as well as drinks energetics.
The most remarkable effects of behavior of caffein take place after the consumption of low doses to moderate (50-300 mg) and include:
1. major alert status
2. Greater energy and capacity of concentration.
The highest doses induce:
After the cease of the caffein consumption the abstinence symptoms are developed in a small number of cases, but they are normally moderate and transitory. The negative effects of the caffein consumption in high doses are observed mainly in a small group of people who are sensible to caffein.
On the base of a scientific revision and taking into account the clinical data, the possibility of adding the presence of abstinence to caffein in the diagnosis manuals is being considered.
The moderation and the common sense are the keys to consume foods and drinks, that contain caffein.
The present knowledge of the caffein effect in the physical and mental health and the scientific evidence indicate that the moderate caffein consumption has diverse positive effects on the health, including increase of the watch, alert status and sensation of energy. Also it improves the mental yield (intellectual), increases of attention capacity and the capacity of concentration, apart from which it accelerates the reaction time, along with the abilities that the logic for the resolution of problems requires.
Caffein improves the yield when there is exhaustion for want of dream, reduces the physical and mental fatigue, as well as the sensation of effort due to the physical exercise. Scientific Literature confirms that the drinks with caffein, can help to the sportsmen during their programs of exercise and in the competitions improving their performance and tolerance to the effort.
The studies realised on the alcohol consumption combined with caffein or drinks energetics have shown clearly, that nor the caffein consumed in a drink energetics can reduce or diminish the sensation of alcoholic poisoning.
1. Medical magazine of the General Hospital of Mexico. voll. 75. Núm. 01. January - March 2012
2. Medscape. Neurológic Effects of Caffeine.Chawla J. Md Nov 11.2015.
3. Everything what you need to know on caffein. http://www.ific.org/sp/publications/brochures/caffeinebrochsp.cfm
Dr. Alejandro Cárdenas Cejudo.
PRESIDENT EIM MEXICO AC.
Ex-president of the CMIM
Member of the Executive committee of the ISIM
Member of the Consultative Council of the SMHAP
Diffusion and press secretary of the ACP Mexico chapter